Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Complex Systems: Complex Adaptive Systems


Complex adaptive systems are self-organizing systems that are composed of many interacting parts and display adaptation to, and coevolution with, an external environment. As such most of the complex systems of interest in the biological and social systems are complex adaptive systems.


Most of the general introductory references given at the start of this guide contain good introductions to the subject of complex adaptive systems; among them these are especially pertinent.

Reference Assistance

Linda Hall Library Research Specialists are available all hours that the Library is open.  9-5 Central Time, Monday through Friday.

Call: 800.662.1545 or 816.926.8701

Email us at  or use the Reference Request Form.

Click here for more information about using the Library.