Skip to main content

Complex Systems: Complex Adaptive Systems

Overview

Complex adaptive systems are self-organizing systems that are composed of many interacting parts and display adaptation to, and coevolution with, an external environment. As such most of the complex systems of interest in the biological and social systems are complex adaptive systems.

Resources

Most of the general introductory references given at the start of this guide contain good introductions to the subject of complex adaptive systems; among them these are especially pertinent.