The history of electronics covers the development of electronic communications, including wireless telegraphy and telephony (radio), television, and related subjects. Other fields of electronics are often treated under separate specific headings, e.g. computer hardware, radar, servomechanisms, measuring and recording instruments, etc. Much of the literature centers on the origin and development of novel devices (vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits) and the new technical processes they made possible (amplification, modulation, and other forms of signal generation and manipulation).
The historical record begins in the last two decades of the nineteenth century and concentrates on the twentieth century.